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    There has been active and concerted efforts by the whole nation for the Union of Myanmar to be a peaceful, modern and developed nation in post 2000. Human resources development takes an active part in this process.
The Ministry of Labour is supporting social benefits of workers with a view to developing human resources in order to implement the State's targets. The Ministry of Labour has given services not only to employees but also to employers so that fair worker's practice would emerge.
Employment Settlement
(a) Inland employment settlement
    78 Labour Offices were opened in states and divisions. Those who seek employment are registered systematically and workers whose qualities are in conformity with the requirements of employers are chosen.
    In 2001, with the help of labour offices, the persons who were employed are as follows:
(1) Yangon Division 10205
(2) Other townships 6144
(b) Foregin Employment Settlement
    Foregin Employment Settlement was systemically formed in 1990. This is the arrangement that will facilitate the work of employers who wish to directly appoint Myanmar workers aboard. The arrangements would also facilitate the work of all private employment agencies both internal and external. human01
    The dispatch of Myanmar workers aboard is made on the basis of cotract for a prescribed limited period. Myanmar workers are sent aboard not only to earn foregin exchange, but upon their return they are to participate as qualified skilled workers in nation development tasks with expertise and technical know-how from experience gained abroad.
Vocational Training
  The Ministry of Labour has launched the Vocational Training Scheme since 1972, with the assistance of the UNDP Nine different courses are conducted in the Centre. Prior to 1988, supervisors and instructors from the private owned factories, mills and workplaces were given skill courses so that they could create multiple skill courses.
At present, courses for welding, electric and lathe machines have been conducted.
  Occupational Welfare
  Nowadays, as foreign investments are gradually increasing in the Union of Myanmar, factories, mills, enterprises and joint ventures owned / run by foreigners have come into existence. Due to the changes in the economic pattern and the relations between workers and their employer, attitude to have good working conditions have been created . The Ministry of Labour has been systematically carrying out measures for the workers to have equitable rights on the one hand and measures not to hamper or hinder the productivity of the enterprise on the other hand.
   Moreover, Workers' Supervision Committees and Workers' Compensation Scrutinizing Committees have been established in various townships so that disputes between the workers and employers can be settled amicably.
Social Security Plan
    Social security plan was implementd in accordance with 1954 Social Security Act by the Ministry of Labour. According to the Law, factories, workshops and enterprises that have over 5 employees, regardless of whether they be State-owned, private-owned, foreign-owned or joint venture, must provide the employees with Social Security Insurance. The ratio of contribution to Social Security Insurance is 2 1/2 % by the employer, 1 1/2 % by the employee and 10 % by the government.
    Thanks to this Social Security plan, family members of a worker who has Social Security insurance are relieved from social hardships, in circumstances when their bread earner is ill, or during maternity period, or when injured or in extreme cases when he has passed away.
    Since 1997, those workers who are under the Social Security Plan have been provided free medical treatment, cash benefit and occupational injury benefit.
   To effectively and gradually implement the Social Security Plan, 97 township branch offices have been established in States and Divisions. One 250-bed workers' hospital in Yangon, one 150-bed workers' hospital in Mandalay, 89 dispensaries and 2 mobile medical units have also been established.
Human Resource Development
    For the development of the border areas
  • A total of 5978 candidates were graduated from the University for the Development of the National Races;
  • 24 regional agricultural training courses were conducted and 1747 trainees were trained;
  • 18 regional livestock breeding training courses were conducted and 505 trainees were trained;
  • 104 house keeping training courses in 4 institutions were conducted and 4846 trainees were trained.
  • 366 primary schools, 48 middle schools and 24 high schools, totalling 433 schools were opened;
  • 28 Universities, 9 Degree- colleges, and 28 Colleges were opened in various states and divisions, and new post graduate courses were conducted;
  • Infrastructure facilities were established in Yangon and Mandalay for the health sector and the education sector to act and work independently;
  • MBA courses were conducted in the Institute of Economics with a view to supporting the business and economic sector;
  • Computer Universities were opened in Yangon and Mandalay so as to upgrade and develop computer knowledge;
  • with a view to promoting the national economy and social dvelopment, the Ministry for Science and Technology was formed;
  • 683 scholars, including 32 for the doctorate courses were sent abroad for further studies;
  • with a view to having strong and healthy citizens, national sports festivals were held with 27537 athletics participating and event Myanmar took part in 24 sportirs events in 21st South East Asian Games with 15214 athletics participating;
  • for the young to gain naval and aviation knowledge training courses in marine and aviation were conducted. 1510 trainees in marine training participated in the 11 training courses and 1665 trainees in aviation training participated in 9 training courses.
Health and prevention of occupational hazards
    Conducting training courses on prevention of occupational hazards, rendering advice, information and training to workers on health matters, taking data and doing research work are being carried out in factories, workshops and departments. In some factories and departments, health education and prevention of occupational hazard committees have been formed and measures to educate workers have been formed and measures to educate workers have been implemented. Up till 2001, there were 570 committees established and during that same period inspection of work places have been made on 1609 factories and mills.
Ensuring employee's benefits according to law
    Regular inspections are being made at factories and work places to check whether it is in compliance with the labour law and to check whether the workers are enjoying benefits according to the law. In 2001, 7563 work places have been inspected in accordance with labour law.
Settlement of Inland Stevedore Workers
    Inland stevedore workers are considered as registered workers and given work at their respective townships and work places.
Since workers' welfare funds have been established, not only the workers themselves but also their family members can enjoy social assistance.
   At present, 63 township branch offices have been opened and a systematic search for job vacancies for 17224 registered workers are being conducted.
Efforts of Manpower Department
Aims and objectives of the Manpower Department
human03     In building a modern and developed nation, not only richness in natural resources, but also abundance in human resources plays an important role. Population density, age and sex distribution, birth and mortality rate, migration rate, according to geographical situation, education standard, health situation, skills in science and technology, cultural and traditions of the peoples must be known. Only on timely receipt of these basic facts, can an accurate socio-economic plan be drawn. Hence, to entirely devote on the matter of population the Ministry of Immigration and Population was formed in 15 June 1995. As demanded by the situation and according to the needs of the State, the Department for Manpower was formed in 12 January 1998 under the Ministry of Immigration and Population.
Four main tasks of Manpower Department
   There are four main tasks of manpower department. They are as follows:
  1. Collection of population census every 10 years,
  2. Conducting population surveys between censuses,
  3. Based on collected data on population census and surveys, population statistics statement, state / division - wise, is issued, classified according to age (f ive years in one group) and sex group. This is to provide accurate data for drawing up of the State's long and short-term socioeconomic plan.
  4. Preparing research papers based on the facts from census and surveys and facts receivd from various departments on social, education, economic, and health sectors.
Other tasks of Manpower Department
    In addition to the four main tasks mentioned above, the Department of Manpower has to carry out the following tasks as required by work situation:
  1. Providing computer technology assistance to various ministries and departments and conducting computer courses.
  2. Strengthening and refreshing of educational standard of the new generation of civil servants. (Giving training courses, seminars and conferences both internally and abroad)
  3. Implementing population and development measures adopted by international conferences, which are in consonance with Myanmar's culture, tradition, and characteristics.
  4. Cooperation with other departments in the field of human resources development.
  5. Analyzing and projection of population statistics from time to time as required by the State.
Census Sector
    With a view to collection taxes, mobilizing workers and strengthening the military, census collection has been implemented since the era of the Myanmar Kings up to the present day. The first census was collected in 1872. Nine years later, the second census was collected in 1881, census collections were done only in lower Myanmar. Census collectons conducted in 1891 to 1941 over the entire country of Myanmar. Census collection in 1953 was conducted in 252 towns and in 1954, census collection was conducted in 2143 village tracts. However, census collection throughout the entire country was conducted during the said years. The first census collected throughout the entire country as a national movement was conducted in 1973. Ten years later, the scond census was collected in 1983.
Surveys on Changes in Population and Fertility in 1991
    In 1991, surveys on changes in population and fertility rate were conducted with assistance from UNFPA using sample method. Thanks to the all - round support from various sectors and the UN's financial assistance and expertise, a report on the CPFS country report was published for the very first time.
Surveys on Birth Rate and Fertility Rate in 1997
    A survey on the birth rate and fertility rate was conducted during March to June 1997. This was done with the assistance of the United Nations Population Fund. Computerized data processing and preparing preliminary report were made so as to issue useful data for the country before April 1998.
Population Estimation and Publishing
    One of the main tasks of the department is estimating population growth annually and publishing it. In implementing plans for the establishment of a peaceful and prosperous nation, the plans must be based on population statistics. The department has to estimate and calculate basic population data and statistics and distribute them to the respective departments, organizations and to the Planning Department of the Ministry of National Planning and Economic Development to be published in the Union of Myanmar Socio-economic report.
   Rakhines reside in Western Rakhine coast, Kachins and Chins reside in the North and North-west areas, Shans and Kayahs reside in the Eastern plateau and Bamars reside in the Central plain area. Bamars and Kayins reside in the Southern part, that is the delta area, where rivers, streams and lakes are abundant. Taninthayi coast is the region where the Mons reside. The majority of the nationals in Myanmar is Bamar which constitutes about 70% of the total population, the second largest majority is the Shan which constitute about 9% of population, and the third largest majority is Kayin which constitute about 6% of the population. The remaining nationalities in descending order are Rekhine, Mon, Chin, Kachin and Kayah.
    About 50% of the entire area of Myanmar is forested. There are 31367 square mile of arable land. Thus 64% the work force are farmers.
The Establishment of Population International Network
   The Seminar on Feasibility of Establishing National Population Centre in Myanmar was held at the Immigraton and Manpower Department, Census and Computer Division for two days, from 5th March 1994 to 6th March 1994 for the purpose of collecting and dissemination of population in Myanmar. 22 representatives from 12 government departments and 3 NGOs (Non-Governmental Organizations) participated in that seminar. The seminar selected the Department of Manpower to act as a focal point for the collecting and dissemination of population in Myanmar and adopted the formation of a Ministerial Level Coordinating Committee headed by the Minister for Immigration and Manpower. It also agreed to the establishment of an Executive Committee headed by the Director - General of the Immigration and Manpower Department. The Executive Committee comprises representatives from 8 departments and one NGO.
    Manpower Department has sent its hardcore workers, responsible for POPIN to Thailand, People's Republic of China and India to study information network technology, collecting of information, exchange and dissemination of information, technology used by world class universities and research institutions, and for studying computer documentation system / Integrated Software for information and Management Services (CDS/ ISIS) computer technology mainly used by Information Center.
Within the country Ministry of Immigration and Manpower held Training Workshop on Information Management and Documentation on November 27 and 28, 1997, at International Business Centre in coordination with United Nations Population Fund.
   The world population day was held on 11 th July every year. In 12nd October 1999, "The Day of Six Billion" was celebrated in Yangon.
Compilation of Draft Report for National Programme of Action
    1994, International Conference on Population and Development-ICPD was held in Cairo, Egypt Arab Republic from 5 to 13 September 1994. Myanmar delegation headed by Minister for Home Affairs and Director General of Immigration and Manpower Department attended that conference. UNFPA offered technical and financial assistance to Myanmar for the Programme of Action.
    In the IPCD workshop held on 7 and 8 December 1995, it was decided that the Immigration and Manpower department shall compile a draft report for National Programme of Action based on the adviced given by the representives. In the middle of 1997, UNFPA offered additional assistance for the compilation of NPA draft report. Hence, the draft report has been classified into 11 chapters and officials from the Immigration and Manpower department have been compiling the NPA draft report.
Measures taken by Ministry of Health
    There were some reforms in the teaching of medicine to refled the changes in the world. To be in line with the changes of the State the Medical Science Department has revised the syllabus and is taking measures to procure modern equipment technology.
Following is the list of graduates (diploma, Master in Science and etc).
SN University/Institude Type Period
No. accepted
1 Institute of Medicine M.B.B.S(post-gard)
2 Institute of Dental Medicine B.D.S (post-gard)
3 Institute of Para-medical science B.P.Sc
* Regular Course
* Bridge Course
* Diploma Course


4 Institute of Pharmacy B.Pharm
* Regular Course
* Bridge Course
5 Institute of Nursing Nursing (B.N.Sc)
* Regular Course
* Bridge Course


6 Institute of Community Health Health Assistant
* Regular Course
* Intensive"
Public Health
Supervisor (1)
Public Health
Supervisor (2)




7 Nurse Training School Diploma Nurse 3 750
8 Mid-wife Training School Mid-wife 1 800
9 Lady Health Visitor Training School Lady Health visitor 120
10 Advanced Nurse Training School Special Nursing 50
11 Denture School Skilled Denture 3 10
12 Oral Health Nursing School Oral Health Nurse 3 10
13 Tradition Medicine School Traditional-Medicine-
   In the year 2000, the population of our country reach 50.29 million as the population growth rate is 1.8%. Human rescources that would be turned out by the Medical Science Department is shown below.
S.N Health Workers 1997 2000
1 Doctor 14920 16570
2 Dental Surgeon 1132 1312
3 Nurse 10697 13517
4 Health Assistance Officer 1167 2177
5 Lady Health visitor 2364 2724
6 Mid-wife 19304 20456
7 Health Supervisor (1) 1299 1509
8 Health Supervisor (2) 513 1113
9 Para-Medical


10 Pharmacist 101 251
11 Dental Health Care 133 163
12 Indigenous Medicine 708 1--9
It is found that Human Resources for primary health care has fallen short. Human resource is essential for the sustainable growth of the State. Department of medical science is undertaking systematic planning for turning out of health workers in accordance with the necessity of the State.
    In the civilization of mankind, spiritual culture and physical culture play an important role. In competing with internationals, to be regarded as civilized and goodnatured people, we have to obey the teachings of our parents, our first and foremost mentors, since the day we were born. human06
   As Myanmars are Buddhists, they obey Lord Buddha's preaching. Buddha's preaching are propagated by Sanghas. They lead us for physical and mental wellbeing by Sasana. Donors and laymen offer monasteries to Sanghas for the decent stay and to protect from bad weather. The quantity of monastery and pariyatti (learning) centres in Myanmar is expressed below :
S.N State/Division No. of
Districts Township No. of
1 Kachin 685 2 6 48
2 Kayah 148 2 2 11
3 Kayin 1015 2 6 173
4 Chin 108 - - -
5 Mon 2474 2 10 290
6 Rakhine 2756 4 14 64
7 Shan 4624 8 46 986
8 Sagaing 7720 7 27 280
9 Taninthayi 1180 3 7 55
10 Bago 5727 4 26 667
11 Magway 5867 4 17 122
12 Mandalay 8624 6 30 605
13 Yangon 4136 4 38 414
14 Ayeyarwady 6275 5 24 144
Sanga Mission in Myanmar
Monks 170165
Novices  244402
Monasteries 51814
Nuns 26232
School for Nuns  2699
The Missionary of Border Areas Inland and Foreign]
Missions 391
Missionary Monks  491
Missionary Nuns 36
Missionary Laymen 863
The Monastic Education
School 973
Novices 14377
Nuns 939
Male Student 177623
Female Student 104128
The International Theravada Buddhist Missionary University
Diploma Course
Myanmar Students 16
Foreign Students 37
Degree Course
Myanmar Students 36
Foreign Students 18
[Monk 18, Nun 7, Male 9, Female 17]  
The Religious Titles and Medals of Honour (2001)
Monks 212
Nuns 20
Laities 15
   The Government of the Union of Myanmar took 120 square metre plot and 80 square metre plot in Lumbini region, in Nepal, the birthplace of Buddha and built 4 kinds of religious structures.
   Lawkamanisula pagoda was built successfully from 22-2-95 to 8-4-96. Ananda Sima (Ordination Hall) has already been built. A 7-storey golden monastery has been constructed. It is planned to build a Dhamasala (Congregation Hall) for pilgraims.
The International Theravada Buddhist Missionary University
   The International Theravada Buddhist Missionary University (ITBMU) was inaugurated on 9th December 1998, with its objective of propagating and promotion of Theravada Buddhism throughout the world. There are four main facutlies in field of studies: human04
  • Faculty of Pariyatti,
  • Faculty of Patipatti,
  • Faculty of Religion and Missionary works,
  • Faculty of Foreign Languages and Translation.
The University offers a Diploma course for the first starting year and gradually it will extend providing higher courses as a 2 year degree course, 2 year Master degree course, and 3 year Ph.D course in Buddha Dhamma.
  For the Diploma course, the University Examination Board held a worldwide entrance examination for admission.
Pratice of Pindacara (going alms-round)
    During the academic year (2000-2001), in order to understand the Vineya practice of Pindacara (going alms-round), the University arranged a programme for foreign monks to go alms-rounds in each ward at Latha Township and Pabedan Township.
Practical Vipassana meditation
    During the long holiday's of the academic year 2000-2001, the University arranged programmes for foreign students to practise vipassand meditation at the meditation centres such as Mahasi, Chanmye, Moegok or Pha-auk according to their choices.
No. Country Diploma B.A Total
Monk Nun Gent Lady Total Monk Nun Gent Lady Total
1 Bangladesh 2 1 3 3
2 Canada     1   1           1
3 China       1 1 1       1 2
4 Cambodia 1