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Ministry Of Science and Technology

           In order to enhance the development of science and technology, the State Law and s Order Restoration Council established the Ministry of Science and Technology according to the Declaration No. 30/96 on 2 October 1996.
           The Ministry of Science and Technology was formed based on the existing Department of Myanma Scientific and Technological Research Deparment (MSTRD) which had been undertaking research and development [asks for the industrial development of the nation. Yangon Institute of Technology (YIT), Vandalay Institute of Technology (MIT), Institute of Computer Science and Technology (ICST) and the Department of Technical and Vocational Eductation (DTVE), which had previously been under the Ministry of Education were transferred to the Ministry of Science and Technology with effect from 1 January 1997. In addition, two new departments, namely, -Department of Advanced Science and Technology (DAST) and Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) have been established under the Ministry of Science and Technology.

Objectives of the Ministry
The objectives of the Ministry of Science and Technology are as follows.
- To carry out research and development works for national economic and social development;
- To utilize natural resources so as to develop the national economy, and raise the living standard of the people;
- To distribute the results of research and development works in industrial and agricultural sectors to enhance the production.
- To plan and carry out human resources development so as to get specialists and professionals in science and technology;
- To analyze and test raw materials and finished products, to implement quality control and standardization of industrial products;
- To coordinate research, development and use of atomic energy.

Departments/Institutes under the Ministry
Four departments under the Ministry of Science and Technology are:
- Myanma Scientific and Technological Research Department,
- Department of Technical and Vocational Education,
- Department of Advanced Science and Technology,
- Department of Atomic Energy.

The Department of Advanced Science and Technology also incorporates five technological institutes (Universities), namely:

- Yangon Institute of Technology,
- Mandalay Institute of Technology,
- Pyay Institute of Technology,
- Yangon Institute of Computer Science and Technology,
- Mandalay Institute of Computer Science and Technology.

Myanma Scientific and Technological Research Department
           Myanma Scientific and Technological Research Department conducts scientific and technological research and development activities for the industrial, economic and social development of the nation. It is composed of nine-research departments conducting research in various scientific disciplines and six technical support departments. The research departments mainly conduct Chemistry, Physics and Engineering-related research works.
           Under the special assignment of the State Law and Order Restoration Council, MSTRD, in cooperation with other governmental organizations, cooperatives and private enterprises, conducts research and development on fuel sources alternative to wood-fuel and charcoal for the conservation of forests and greening of the nine arid districts in the Dry Zone of the country.
           In accordance with the Science and Technology Development Law, in exercising the duties and powers of the National Council for Science and Technology Development, MSTRD will provide offices for the registration of science and technology transfer contracts, industrial designs and patents.

Departments of Technical and Vocational Education
           Under the Department of Technical and Vocational Education coures are being attended by (i) 8,581 students in the 13 Technical Institutes, (ii) 3,500 students in the 17 Technical High Schools, (iii) 232 students iii the II Handicraft Schools, (iv) 47 students in the 2 Machinery Repair and Maintenance Schools, (v)1,314 students in the 2 Engineering Technology Evening Classes and (vi) 1,189 students in the 9 three-month Evening Trade Courses.

Department of Advanced Science and technology
The Department of Advanced Science and Technology consists of three branches, namely:
- Department of Planning for Development of Science and Technology;
- Department of Human Resources Development for Advanced Science and Technology;
- Administration and Finance Department.
Moreover the above-mentioned five technological institutes (universities) are also incorporated.

Technological Institutes (Universities)
           Yangon Institute of Technology, established in' 1964, offers ten BE. Degree courses in Civil Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Electrical Power Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Textile Engineering, Mining Engineering, Petroleum engineering, Metallurgical Engineering and Aeronautical Engineering. In addition, BArch Degree is also offered. As the new student enrollement is about 750 per academic year, the total number of students is about 5000 in 6 year courses. About 650 engineers and If architects graduate every year. Except in Am nautical Engineering, Master of Engineering (M.E) Post-graduate programmes for Master of Architecture (M. Arch.), Master of Environmental Engineering and Master of Food Technology are also offered to 3,3 and 5 graduate students, respectively.
           Ph.D. programmes in Civil Engineering,, Mechanical Engineering, Chemical Engineering and Architecture are being conducted for students. Ph.D. programmes in Applied Sciena Engineering Chemistry, Engineering Mathematics, Engineering Physics (Electronics) aril Nuclear Technology are also offered and a total 51 students are in attendance.
           Research projects in soybean-milk plant construction, Gasifier and 29 other projects also being carried out at 9 Departments Y.I.T.
           Mandalay Institute of Technology was established in 1991 and new student enrollment is 300 per academic year. Bachelor of Engineering Degrees in Civil, Mechanical, trical lower and Electronic Engineering, BArch. Degree in Architecture are Bred at the Institute. Up to now 183 neers and 7 architects have graduated.
           At the Yangon Institute of Computer Science and Technology, established in 1971, Bachelor of Computer Science (B.C.Sc) degrees are normally offered to 80 students and Bachelor of Computer Technology (B.C Tech) degrees are offered to 40 students, totaling 12(, students per year. Durations of these courses have been changed from 5 years to 4 years. Post-graduate Diploma course of 2 year duration for (D.C.Sc.) and 3- year Master course for M.Sc. (Computer Science) are also offered.
           there are 532 students in D.C.Sc. course and 270 in M.Sc. (Computer Science, course.) Apart from this, in affiliation with the National Computing Centre (NCC) of London, England, the N.C.C. Diploma courses are also conducted at the Institute. About 250 students are attending the N.C.C. Diploma courses.
           Five research projects in Hardware, Software, Computational Mathematics and Information Science are being carried out at YICST.
           Mandalay Institute of Computer Science and Technology is a new establishment, just Carted on 18 September 1997 with 124 undergraduate students and 54 post-graduate Diploma (D.C.Sc) students.
           Pyay Institute of Technology is under construction and is due to open soon. The planned annual intake is about 300 students.
           To modernize the nation, Myanrnar needs many qualified engineers, architects, computer technicians and scientists. It is the main duty of the Department of Advanced Science and Technology (DAST) to make Myanmar an industrialized country based on agriculture. To do this, plans and development projects must be implemented so that the advanced engineers and scientists are encouraged and persuaded by giving them proper facilities to do research works and to invent machinery and equipment as and when needed.

Department of Atomic Energy
The Department of Atomic Energy consists of four functional groups, namely:
- Radiation Detection Department,
- Radiation Application Department,
- Reactor and Isotopes Department,
- Administration and Finance Department.
The main responsibilities of the Department are:
- Promotion of atomic energy application;
- Promotion of nuclear research;
- Radiation protection regulatory functions;
- Functioning as an agency representing the country in relations with foreign and international organizations dealing with atomic energy;
Coordination work among the government departments and educational institutions in areas related to nuclear energy and its application.

           Although Ministry of Science and Technology was formed only over a year ago, it is gaining momentum in producing qualified engineers, scientists and computer technicians; producing middle-rung technicians; carrying out applied research works; and making effort to industrialize the nation. Moreover, in order to overcome the problems of scarcity of teachers in Government Technical Institutes, Institutes (Universities) of Technology and Institutes of Computer Science and Technology, special programmes have been implemented by the Ministry to develop human resources. In addition, efforts are being made to find new and advanced techniques for trans- technology for the benefit of the people.
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