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     In order to establish a discipline- flourishing democratic system and to materialize a peaceful, modern and developed nation in the interests of the State and the people, it has become necessary to exert vigorous efforts with accelerated momentum. Accordingly, the State Peace and Development Council was formed as called for by the situation and condition. gov01
     The State Law and Order Restoration Council issued its Proclamation No. 1/ 97 on 15 November 1997. Under the Proclamation, the State Law and Order Restoration Council was dissolved. The State Peace and Development Council was formed under its proclamation No.1/97.
    The State Peace and Development Council is presently constituted as follows:
1. Senior General Than Shwe Chairman
2. General Maung Aye Vice-Chairman
3. Lt-General Khin Nyunt Secretary -1
4. Maj-Gen Thura Shwe Mann
Ministry of Defence
5. Maj-Gen Soe Win
Ministry of Defence
6. Maj-Gen Ye Myint
Ministry of Defence
7. Maj-Gen Aung Htwe
Ministry of Defence
8. Maj-Gen Khin Maung Than
Ministry of Defence
9. Maj-Gen Maung Bo
Ministry of Defence
10. Maj-Gen Thein Sein
Ministry of Defence
11. Maj-Gen Thiha Thura Tin Aung Myin Oo
Ministry of Defence
12. Maj-Gen Kyaw Win
Ministry of Defence
13. Maj-Gen Tin Aye
Ministry of Defence
   The State Peace and Development Council, with a view to building a new modern developed nation in the interests of the State and the people, reorganized the Government on 15 November 1997. The new Government consists of 40 members - a Prime Minister, three Deputy Prime Ministers and 37 Ministers.
  1. Ministry of Defence
  2. Ministry of Military Affairs
  3. Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation
  4. Ministry of Industry - 1
  5. Ministry of Industry - 2
  6. Ministry of Foreign Affairs
  7. Ministry of National Planning and Economic Development
  8. Ministry of Transport
  9. Ministry of Labour
  10. Ministry of Education
  11. Ministry of Energy
  12. Ministry of Rail Transportation
  13. Ministry of Health
  14. Ministry of Commerce
  15. Ministry of Hotels and Tourism
  16. Ministry of Finance and Revenue
  17. Ministry of Communications, Posts and Telegraphs
  18. Ministry of Religious Affair
  19. Ministry of Construction
  20. Ministry of Science and Technology
  21. Ministry of Culture
  22. Ministry of Immigration and Population
  23. Ministry of Information
  24. Ministry of Cooperatives
  25. Ministry for Progress of Border Areas and National Races and Development Affairs
  26. Ministry of Electric Power
  27. Ministry of Sports
  28. Ministry of Forestry
  29. Ministry of Home Affairs
  30. Ministry of Mines
  31. Ministry of Social Welfare, Relief and Resettlement
  32. Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries
  33. Office of Chairman of the State Peace and Development Council
  34. Office of the Prime Minister
    The State Peace and Development Council has conferred judicial powers upon the judges, who are Government service personnel by promulgating the Judiciary Law, with the aim to maintain the stability of the State, community peace and tranquillity, prevalence of law and order and thus, the judicial system which is beneficial to the public interest has been adopted. gov03
     The courts at different levels in the Union of Myanmar are adjudicating cases according to the seven Judicial Principles.
  • Administering justice independently according to law;
  • Protecting and safeguarding the interests of the people and aiding in the restoration of
  • law and order and peace and tranquillity;
  • Educating the people to understand and abide by the law and cultivating in the people the
  • habit of abiding by the law;
  • Working within the framework of law for settlement of cases;
  • Dispensing justice in open court unless otherwise prohibited by law;
  • Guaranteeing in all cases the right of defense and the right of appeal under the law;
  • Aiming at reforming moral character in meting out punishment to offenders.
      The Supreme Court has provided the maxims "Dispense justice fairly and speedily," "Follow the procedures", "Be free from bribery and corruption", and "Maintain
the integrity of court with probity".
     Under the Judiciary Law, the Supreme Court, State and Divisional Courts including District Courts and Township Courts are established in the Union of Myanmar.
    The State Peace and Development Council enacted the Attorney-General Law and
appointed the Attorney-General and Deputy Attorney-General to be in conformity with the system that has evolved. The former Central Law Office has been reorganized as office of the Attorney-General. Under the supervision of the Attorney General, 14 States and Divisional Law Offices, two Shan State (Northern/Eastern) Law Offices, 64 District Law Offices, 321 Township Law Offices were formed at different levels, and functions and duties pertaining to law are being carried out.
     The Office of the Attorney-General has been constituted with four departments - the Law Drafting and Law Translation Department, Legal Opinion Department, Prosecution Department and Administration Department.
     After promulgation of the Auditor-General Law on 28 September 1988, the Auditor-General and the Deputy Auditor-General were appointed accordingly.. The Office of the Auditor-General, 14 State / Division Accounts Offices, 59 number of District Accounts Offices and 290 number of Township Accounts offices are established under the Auditor-General in exercise of power conferred upon him in the law.
    The head office of OAG and its regional accounts offices at different levels in accord with the duties assigned to them under the provisions of Article 3 of the Auditor-General Law drawn quarterly audit plans and carried out audit of the Ministries, State Economic Enterprises and departments and submitting reports thereon to the authorities concerned.
     The Central Institute of Civil Services is established to train and nurture the three skills -physical, mental and character- of service personnel.
    The Institute is near Phaunggyi Village in Hlegu Township, Yangon Division. The Ministry of Home Affairs opened the Institute under its original name "The Central School of Public Services" on January 1, 1965. In accordance with the 1977 Public Services Selection and Training Board's Law, the school was promoted to the standard of "The Central Institute of Civil Services" and placed it under supervision of Public Services Selection and Training Board and direct control of the Council of State on May, 1977.
    The Institute is continuously training service personnel , according to its motto "Ideology, Duty and Loyalty."
    By conducting various kinds of training courses, the Institute keeps one's character-to understand each subject of the State.
  • to give basic training courses to administrative and technical personnel,
  • to conduct refresher courses for central-level personnel,
  • to hold coordination meetings and seminars on management for Central and Regional Administrative Bodies and higher-level personnel of management,
  • to carry out research in training the service personnel responsible for management.
The Institute is conducting various kinds of following training courses to implement its objectives:
  1. Basic training courses
  2. Basic training courses for junior service personnel
  3. Clerical (supervisory) training courses
  4. Basic clerical training courses
  5. Training course for new members of People's Police Force
  6. Special refresher course for police sergeants
  7. Training course for police sub-inspectors (Sergeants)
  8. Basic training course for People's Police Force
  9. Management training course Grade (1) for personnel of General Administration Department
  10. Special training course for faculty of Universities and Colleges
  11. Special training course for Personnel of townships to states.
  12. Special training course for doctors
  13. Special training course for Basic Education Teachers
  14. Special training course for police officers
  15. Special training course for staff officers of General Administration Department
  16. Special training course for executives of Red Cross
  17. Special training course for officers of Development Affairs Department
     The training courses are conducted by political, economic, social, public affairs
management, Law and military science departments of the Institute.
    The Central Institute of Civil Services (Upper Myanmar) was opened on 7 February 1999, at Zeebin Village, Pyin-Oo-Lwin Township in Mandalay Division.
    The Burma Socialist Programme Party, in response to the demand for Multiparty
democracy system, summoned the emergency session of the Fourth Pyithu Hluttaw on 11 September 1988.
     At this session, the Multi-party Democray General Election Commission was formed as a special case to hold Multi-party Democracy General Election. The State Law and Order Restoration Council (now the State Peace and Development Council) announced under its Proclamation No. 1/88 that the Multi-party Democracy Gneral Election Commission will continue to take effect.
     The Multi-party Democray General Election Commission was formed with U Ba Htay,retired Commissioner of Treasury (deceased), as Chairman and U Kyaw Nyunt, retired Myanmar Ambassador to Canada, U San Mating, retired Commissioner of Savings and Insurance, U Saw Kyar Doe, retired Brigadier-General (deceased), and Saya Chai, former member of parliament and Hluttaw representative (deceased) as members. The Director-General of the Commission Office was appointed as Secretary of the Commission.
     The State Law and Order Restoration Council (now the State Peace and Development Council) sincerely wishes to bring about Multi-party Democracy System as soon as possible. It has no desire for power, although it had to take over the State duties under unavoidable circumstances. There is no limitation, restriction or repression whatsoever. It has already stated that it is ready to provide assistance to the most possible extent whenever the Commission is in need of help.
    Accordingly, the Commission Law, Political Parties Registration Law and Pyithu Hluttaw Election Law were enacted to hold Multi-party Democracy General Election successfully.
    The Commission, in accord with the Laws, made Political Parties Registration By-law and Pyithu Hluttaw Election By-law and carried out its tasks accordingly.
    According to the Laws and by-laws, 235 parties registered with the Commission to take part in the election.
    Thus, free and fair Multi-party Democracy General Election was successfully held on 27 May 1990.
    After holding the Milti-party Democracy General Election, the Commission has been
discharging its duties concerning election in accordance with the provisions of the Election Law and By-laws.
     The National Convention was held on 9 January 1993 to draft an enduring State Constitution needed for the country. In order to convene the National Convention, the State Law and Order Restoration Council formed the National Convention Convening Commission under its Notification No. 13/ 92 issued on 2 October 1992.
     To enable the Commission to discharge its assigned duties effectively, the 28member National Convention Convening Work Committee and the 37-member National Convention Convening Management Committee were formed.
    Eight categories of delegates were designated to attend the National Convention which was held with six objectives. They are :
  • Non - disintegration of the Union,
  • Non - disintegration of national unity,
  • Perpetuation of national sovereignty,
  • Establishment and flourishing of genuine multi - party democracy system,
  • Promotion of secular virtues such as justice, freedom and equality,
  • Participation by the Tatmadaw in the leading role of national politics of the future State.
    The National Convention Convening Commission, according to the Procedural rules, chose members of the Panel of Chairmen and assigned duties to hold panel discussions of delegate groups and plenary meetings in an orderly and systematic manner.
The eight categories of delegates attending the National Convention are: -
  • Delegates from political parties
  • Representatives elect
  • Delegates of national races
  • Peasant delegates
  • Worker delegates
  • Delegates of intellectuals and intelligentsia
  • State employee delegates
  • Other invited delegates.
    Discussions on basic principles to draft a State Constitution were to be based on true situation of Myanmar, natural conditions, historical background, political, economic and social conditions and cultural traditions and customs.
     Discussions were first held on chapter headings so as to arrive at specific chapter headings after thorough deliberations. After arriving at the chapter headings, discussions were to focus on basic principles for each of the chapters.
     The basic principles discussed and suggested by the delegates and a review and assessment of the panel of chairmen were submitted to the National Covention Covening Commission which approved the basic principles. The approval was presented and explained at the Plenary Meeting.
     Fifteen chapter headings and 104 basic principles have already been laid down. Discussions on legislation, administration and judicature are under way.
     During Independence Struggles in Myanmar, national races fought against colonialists with whatever arms they could get and political organizations made demands for national well-being and opposed the colonialists in various ways. Myanmar political leaders, however, knew that it would not be possible to regain independence without armed resistance. They accordingly made secret plans to organize an army.     gov04
     World War II broke out on 3 September 1939. The Thirty Comrades led by Bogyoke Aung San secretly left for Hainan Island in Southern China to undergo military training. They underwent tough and intensive military training.
    When Japan entered World War II, the Thirty Comrades together with Japanese troops arrived in Bangkok, Thailand, where they formed the Burma Independence Army (BIA) between 26 December 1941 and 2 January 1942. BIA was initially formed with 200 men and marched into Myanmar. BIA grew in strength--up to 23,000 to 50,000 men in a matter of days and weeks and the Japanese were discontent with the increase. Out of fear the Japanese disbanded the BIA on 27 July 1942 and formed Burma Defence Army (BDA) with 3000 men. Although it was under the Japanese, BDA was well-qualified due to systematic formation and training.
     On 1 August 1943, the Japanese granted independence that was artificial and unreal. At the Defence Council meeting, BDA was renamed the Burma National Army (BNA) on 15 September 1943. The Tatmadaw, together with the people, launched the anti-fascist resistance on 27 March 1945. Since then, the Tatmadaw has become inseparably one with the people. Representing the interests of the State and the people, the Tatmadaw brought about national characteristics. Thus,
the British colonialists were compelled to officially recognize the Tatmadaw as Patriotic Burma Force (PBF). After independence, the Resistance Day was designated as the Armed Forces Day on which military parade is held every year.
     When the British colonialists returned to Myanmar they were unwilling to recognize the Tatmadaw as a national army representing the State and the People. They tried to disband the PBF and to replace it with Burma Army. But the Anti-fascist People's Freedom League led by Bogyoke Aung San rejected the idea and the colonialists had to withdraw and cancel their scheme to disband the PBF and to admit individually qualified ones into Burma Army they were to form. Under the Kandi Agreement signed in Kandi, now Sri Lanka, on 6 September 1945, 5200 other ranks, 200 officers and 200 reserve officers of Patriotic Burma Force were allowed to join Burma Army which included national units the colonialists had formed before the war.
     The Tatmadaw not only launched the anti-fascist resistance but also played a pivotal role together with the people in anti-colonialist campaign and wrest back independence. In addition to its national defence duty, the Tatmadaw played a leading role as called for by history in 1948-49, the worst year of internal insurgency, and in preventing the external invasion that started in 1950.
     When the national unity and the Union were on the brink of disintegration and national sovereignty was in danger, the Tatmadaw had to take over State power unavoidably on 2 March 1962.
     In August 1988, there was political unrest that caused a dire situation. Anarchy reigned and violence was rife. When the Union was on the verge of disintegration, the Tatmadaw had to step in again.
     The Tatmadaw formed the State Law and Order Restoration Council and took over State power. The Tatmadaw has continued conscientiously to shoulder State duties as the State Peace and Development Council. As a result of Tatmadaw's endeavours aimed at national reconsolidation, armed groups have returned to the legal fold.
    Tatmadaw's history, which is concomitant with the Modern History of Myanmar, is full of significant qualities and characteristics. The Tatmadaw with good tradition possesses the Three Capabilities - military capability, organizational capability and administrative capability. The Tatmadaw, upholding the Four-Point oath of allegiance abiding by the code of conduct and disciplinary rules and having high morale and nobility, has since its inception carried out national and historical responsibilities dutifully and conscientiously. It is still discharging the duties selflessly with valour and will do so with determination in the future. Exceptionally vital leading role played by the Tatmadaw during the Independence Struggle and in national politics has already been witnessed.
    Accordingly, the on-going National Convention is pondering the points to be included in drafting an enduring State Constitution which will enable the Tatmadaw to play a leading role in national politics of the future State and participate in defence and security sectors and other national affairs.
    The State Peace and Development Council confers titles and medals yearly on Sayadaws who are making efforts for purification, perpetuation and propagation of Buddha Sasana, Gandaduta Pariyatti Lecturer Sayadaws, Wipassanadura Patipatti Meditation Instructor Sayadaws, Roving Dhamma Kahtika and local and foreign missionaries, lay persons who are donating four requisites to the Buddha Sasana, Tatmadaw members who valiantly carried out their duties for independence, perpetuation of sovereignty and protecting life and safety of nationals, persons making outstanding performances in development of industrial, management, social sectors and civil affairs and members of Myanmar Police Force.
     The medals include religious titles, Medals of Honour, Good Military Service medals, Good Civil Service medals, Good Police Service medals, Medals of Honour for Police Force, Civil Service Medals, Rule of Law and Order Medals and Joint Combat Medals for Police Force.
    A list of Abidaja Maha Ratta Guru title, Agga Maha Pandita title, and religious title recipient Sayadaws, nuns, local and foreign missionaries, donors of four requisites to the Sasana, name of recipients of titles and medals of honour, recipients of military good services medals, recipients of good service personnel medals, Good services in Police Force Medals, Long Service in Police Force Medals, Civil Services Medals, Rule of Law and Order Medals and Joint Combat Police Force Medals are announced yearly on January 4, the Independence Day.
The Government confers following titles and medals of honour.
  • Abidaja Maha Ratta Guru Title,
  • Agga Maha Pandita,
  • Agga Maha Gandavasaka Pandita (Sayadaws/ Nuns)
  • Maha Dhamma Kahtika Bahuzanahita Data,
  • Agga Maha Dhammar Htanarcariya,
  • Maha Kamma Htanarcariya,
  • Cula Kamma Htanarcariya,
  • Abidaza Agga Maha Thatdahamma Zawtika,
  • Agga Maha Thatdhamma Zawtika,
  • Maha Thadhammma Zawtika (Sayadaws/ Nuns/ Lay persons)
  • Thatdhamma Zawtika Daja (Sayadaws/ Nuns/ Lay persons)
  • Agga Maha Thiri Thudhamma Mani Zawta Dara,
  • Thiri Thudhamma Manizawta Daja,
  • Thiha Thudhamma Manizawta Daja,
  • Thudhamma Manizawta Daja,
  • Agga Maha Thiri Thudhamma Theingi,
  • Thiha Thudhamma Theingi,
  • Theingi,
Military titles and medals of honour
  • Aung San Thuriya,
  • Thiha Thura,
  • Thura,
  • Dagun
  • Zarni
  • Pyidaungzu Zarni
  • Title for Valour
  • Aung San
  • Thiha Bala
  • Independence Medal
 Independence Organizational Medal
  • Ayaydawbon Medal
  • Pyithu Thargaung
  • Military Services Medal
  • Pyipa Yanhnein
  • People's Militia Combat Medal
  • State Peace and Development Medal
  • Mongyoung - Methawaw Battle Medal
  • Military Service Honorary Medal
  • Medal for Development of the State
  • Combat Medal (1962 - 74) (1974 - 88) (1988 - 90)
  • Combat Medal (Mela) (Hpa - lu)
  • Military Service Medal
  • Medal of Military Good Services
  • Golden Jubilee Medal
  • Yan Nyein Aye Medal
Medals for Outstanding Performances
  • Medal for Outstanding Performances in Industrial Field (First,Second and Third Class)
  • Medal for Outstanding Performances in Management Field (First,Second and Third Class)
  • Ye Thura Medal
  • Ye Kyawthu Medal
  • Good Service Personnel Medals
  • Police Good Service Personnel Medal
  • State Police Force Medal
  • Service Personnel Medal
  • Rule of Law and Order Medal
  • Joint Operation Medal for Police Force
        Central Committee for Development of Border Areas and National Races was formed on 25 May, 1989 to carry out development programmes for national brethren who are living in border areas which were lagged behind due to various insurgencies. Central Committe for Development of Border Areas and National Races was formed with 9 members including the Chairman. The Chairman of the Central Committee for Development of Border Areas and National Races is Senior General Than Shwe.
        Then, the work committee for Development of Border Areas and National Races was
    formed on 31 May, 1989. Lt-General Khin Nyunt as Chariman. Moreover, 18 Sub-committees for Development of Border areas and National Races were formed with forty members of ministers, Deputy Ministers and Heads of Departments. Afterwards, the Ministry of Border Areas and National Races was formed on 24 September 1992 to be able to implement development projects for Border Areas and National Races harmoniously with the co-operation of the Work Committee, Subcommittee and Regional Committee in accordance with the guidance of Central Committee.
         The Ministry of Development for Border Areas and National Races was reformed as the Ministry of Development and Progress for Border Areas and National Races on 30 January 1994 to implement rural and urban development programmes more extensively.
        Committee of Co-ordination with UN Agencies and International Organizations for
    Development of Border Areas was established on 25 April 1991 in order to support work programmes for the development of Border Areas and National Races. The tasks to be carried out by the committee are as follows:
    • To submit the condition of receiving cash and kind from international organizations and other foreign countries for development programmes of Border Areas and national races to the Implementation Committee for Development of Border Areas and National Races,
    • To request aid and support from the International Organizations and other supporting foreign countries for the implementation programmes for development of border Areas in accordance with the guidance of the Work Com mittee,
    • To carry out as a middle-men in dealing with other international organizations and foreign countries,
    • To co-ordinate with Government Departments, Directorates and Governmentowned organizations which are carrying out for development of border areas and matters concerning with obtaining foreign aid,
    • To issue news and information pertaining to progress and condition of implementation programmes especially to foreign countries and international organizations.
    • To undertake duties assigned by the Implementation Committee for Development of Border Areas and National Races.
        Since the State has been implementing development programmes with impetus by adopting plans and projects with true and sincere cetana for the brethren who are residing in the border areas, the armed group, realizing the true cetana and attitude of the government, returned to the legal fold and joined hands with the government to implement regional development programmes.
         Development programmes were especially carried out in the regions of Kachin Special Region (1), Kachin Special Region (2), Ko Kang Region, Wa Region, Shan State, Northeast Kachin State, Palaung, Eastern Kengtung, Homein, Monghtaw, Monghtal, Mawpha, Pa-O, Kayah State, Rakhine State, Chin State, Sagaing (Naga), Kabaw Valley Region, Kayin State, Taninthayi Division and Mon State.
        Progress of paving roads completed until September 2001 were 3432/1 miles of earth road, 1550/3 miles of stone road and 315/5 miles of asphalt road. In transportation sector, small and large bridges and suspension bridges were built. Altogether 64 bridges, 792 small bridges and 16 suspension bridges were built.
         In Health Sector, hospitals, dispensaries and health care centres were opened. Altogether 46 hospitals, 74 clinics and 18 Rural health care centres had been opened. For the development of education sector, altogether 366 Primary Schools, 48 Middle Schools and 19 High Schools had been opened. In agriculture sector, 31 agricultural offices and 113 agriculture centres were opened, 39 dams were under construction, 40 dams were built and 3 dams were being measured.
        In those border areas, communication works such as post offices, radio telephone, longdistance call line, telegram, satellite communication centres were installed. A total of 53 post offices, 45 radio telephones, 442 miles distance call line, 45 telegram offices and 11 satellite communication centres were built. Total amount of 21883.81 million kyats was spent by the government for the development of border areas and national races during 1998-1999 to 19992000 fiscal year.
         Institute of Development for National Races was opened in Sagaing on 20 October 1964 in line with the policies of Revolutionary Council. Later, it was moved to Ywathitgyi Village, Sagaing Township on 14 August 1968. Since the opening of the Institute until 1975, it was solely under the guidance of the Ministry of Education. But it became under the guidance and supervision of Burma socialist Programme Party and Government authorities from 15 August 1975 to 1988.
        At the time of the State Law and Order Restoration Council, programmes of supervision have been transferred to the Civil Service Selection and Training Board since 1 November 1988 and then 10-member Work Committee led by the Chairman of the Civil Service Selection and Training Board was formed. Furthermore, Close Supervisory Committee was formed with the Commander of the Northwest Command as Chairman.
         The State Law and Order Restoration Council (now, the State Peace and Development Council) gave guidance to promote the Institute to University level to be able to provide effective support for the implementation of Border Area Development programmes. Afterwards, Act of University for Development of National Races was promulgated on 10 May 1991 with the Law No.9/91. Then University Council for the Development of the National Races was formed under Notification No.2/ 91. Later, Notification No. 3/91 was issued. Under this Notification, Civil Services Selection and Training Board was assigned duty to carry out management for the implementation of designated measures. The objectives of the University of Development are as follows:
    1. To be filled with Union spirit among national races while they are studying together at the University amicably,
    2. To value and maintain the customs and traditions of national races,
    3. To imbue with strong desire to promote living standard of the national races,
    4. To promote leadership skill which is essential for the implementation of Development programmes,
    5. To have strong interest and desire in research programmes for the success of development programmes,
    6. To bring up educational employees with high morale and who are not dealing with party politics,
    7. To make national spirit alive and dynamic giving first priority to our three main national causes: Non-disintegration of the Union, Non-disintegration of national solidarity and perpetuation of soverignty. Various implementation programmes must be carried out to fulfil those objectives. Therefore Graduation courses are categorized as follows:
      1. M.Ed
      2. M-phil (Education)
      3. B.Ed
      4. 1 - year course for Middle School Teachers Training
      5. Regular 4 - year course for Primary School Teachers Training
      6. Special Course for Primary School Teachers Training
    Altogether 72 stocks of national races had completed their courses at the University for Development of National Races. The motto of the University is "Unity is strength". The University for Development of National Races is:
    1. One and only University which is bringing up trainees for the development of all national races residing in the Union of Myanmar.
    2. The University, giving priority to our three main national causes, which has been bringing the good educational employees with high morale and free from party politics.
    3. The University which is training and nurturing the youths who are capable of joining hands with the people for the implementation of all-round development.
    4. The Education University conducting courses for Primary Teachers Training, Middle School Teachers Training and Education Graduation Courses.
       In 2000-2001 Academic year, there are 270 members of regular Primary School Teachers Training No. 33 Course, and 56 members of Middle School Teachers Training Course. The Special Primary School Teachers Training Courses were trained due to immediate requirement for the development of border areas. At present, there are 33 members of B.Ed degree holders, 8 members of M.Ed degree holders, 6 members of M-phil (Education) and one student of M.A (English) in Institute of Foreign Languages and who are working at the University have been conferred their degrees respectively.
        At the time of the State Peace and Development Council, as the achievement of national reconsolidation, various armed groups have exchanged arms for peace to join hands with the people and Tatmadaw for the implementation of regional development programmes. Armed groups who have exchanged arms for peace are as follows.
    1 MNDA : Myanmar National Democracy Alliance
    led by U Phone Kya Shin
    2 MNSP : Myanmar National Solidarity Party
    led by U Kyauk Nyi Laing
    3 NDAA :  National Democracy Alliance Army Military and Local Administrative Committee of Eastern Shan State led by U Sai Lin  (30.6.89)
    4 SSA   :  Shan State Army led by U Hse Htin  (24.9.89)
    5 NDA :  New Democratic Army (Kachin)
    led by U Za Khun Ting Ring
    6 KDA : Kachin Defence Army led by U Mahtu Naw  (11.1.91)
    7 PNO :  Pa-O National Organization
    led by U Aung Hkan Hti
    8 PSLP : Palaung State Liberation Party
    led by U Aik Mon
    9 KNDG : Kayan National Defence Guards
    led by U Gabriel Byan
    10 KIA : Kachin Independence Army
    led by U Zaw Hmaing
    11 KNPLF : Kayinni National People's Liberation Front led by U Tun Kyaw  (9.5.94)
    12 KPP : Kayan Pyithit Party  (26.7.94)
    13 SSNPLO: Shan State National People's Liberation Organization  (9.10.94)
    14 KNPP : Kayinni National Progressive Party (21.3.95)
    15 NMSP : New Mon State Partyled by Nai Shwe Kyin  (29.6.95)
    16  MTA : Mon Tai Army led by U Khun Sa (5.1.96)
    17 BCP :  Burma Communist Party  led by U Saw Tun Oo (4.6.97)
    18  A group of KNU followers led by U Saw Tha Mu He (24.2.97)
    19 A group of KNU followers led by U Saw Phe Re Mo (11.8.97)
    20  A group of KNU followers led by U Pado Aung San (17.4.98)
        Members of armed group, realizing the true cetana of the State Peace and Development Council and noticing the endeavours for national reconsolidation, prevalence of Law and order, and maintenance of peace and tranquillity in the nation, have been returning to the legal fold renouncing their armed policy.
        Members of MTA led by U Khun Sa returned to the legal fold, bringing along them arms and ammunition, in Eastern, Southern and Nothern Shan State after witnessing with their own eyes the implementation measures of the development programmes undertaking hand in hand with the people and the Tatmadaw, and realizing true sincerity and attitude of the State.
         Members of U Khun Sa group had been continuously returning to the legal fold since 5 January 1996 in Homein, Lwelang, Lwehtun, Monghtaw, Monghtal, Wansin and Naung Hlaing regions in Eastern, Northern and Southern Shan State.
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