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    The Union of Myanmar is geographically situated in Southeast Asia between latitudes 09 32' N and 2831' N and longitudes 92 10' E and 101 11' E.
    Myanmar is bordered on the north and northeast by the People's Republic of China, on the east and southeast by the Lao People's Democratic Republic and the Kingdom of Thailand, on the south by the Andaman Sea and the Bay of Bengal and on the west by the People's Republic of Bangladesh and the Republic of India.
    East longitude 96 13' and north latitude 16 45' run through Yangon, the Capital City of Myanmar. Myanmar Standard Time, taken as on east longitude 97 30' is six hours and thirty minutes ahead of Greenwich Mean Time.
    The total area of Myanmar is 2,61,228 square miles (6,77,000 square kilometers). It stretches for 582 miles (936 kilometers) from east to west and 1,275 miles (2,051 kilometers) from north to south.
    The length of contiguous frontier is 3,828 miles (6,129 kilometers), sharing 1,370 miles with China, 1,310 miles with Thailand, 832 miles with India, 1,687 miles with Bangladesh and 148 miles with Laos respectively. The length of the coastline from the mouth of Naaf River to Kawthaung is approximately 1,385 miles.
    The topography of Myanmar can roughly be divided into three parts: the Western Hills Region, the Central Valley Region and the Eastern Hill Region. The Himalayan Range has a link with Myanmar and is known as the Western Yoma that runs to the south. The Khakabo Razi which is situated in the northernmost part of the Westem Yoma is 19,296 feet high while the Sarameti is 12,553. The Western Yoma Range serves as a wall that separates Myanmar from India.
    The Central Valley Region consists of the broadest valley of the Ayeyawady. The first part of the River Ayeyawady is from the origin of river to Mandalay; the second part constitutes from Mandalay to Pyay and the third is the part from Pyay to the mouth of the river. The Central Valley Region consists of Sittaung Valley and Chindwin Valley. In the centre lies the small mountain ranges such as Zeebyu Taungdan, Minwun Taungdan, Hman-kin Taungdan and Gangaw Taungdan. There also lies the low range of Bago Yoma that slopes down from north to south.
    The Eastern Hills Region is the Shan Plateau which is average 3,000 to 4,000 feet above sea level. Unlike the plain, the plateau has high mountain ranges and the River Than Lwin flows through the Shan Plateau to the northern Taninthayi Coastal Strip. The rivers of Shweli, Myitnge, Zawgyi and Pan-laung which have their sources at the Shan Plateau flow into the River Ayeyawady.
    The distinguishing features of the State Seal are as follows :
  • At the centre of the State Seal is a pinion with fourteen equal-sized cogs on which the map of Myanmar is superimposed. The pinion and the map are encircled with two ears of paddy.
  • The ears of paddy are flanked on each side by an artistic Myanmar Lion. The lion on the right side faces towards the right and the one on the left side faces towards the left.
  • The words "The Union of Myanmar" are inscribed in Myanmar below the lions and the ears of paddy.
  • At the top of the State Seal is a star with five vertices.
  • Myanmar floral designs are etched on either side of the ears of paddy and the star.
    The State Flag is rectangular in shape and its background colour is red with a dark blue canton at the top left corner. A pinion and ears of paddy encircled with fourteen white stars of equal size have been superimposed on the dark blue field of the canton.
    The centre of the pinion coincides with the centre of the blue canton. The pinion has fourteen cogs of equal size and within it are two ears of paddy consisting of 34 grains. At the top of each cog of the pinion is a star with five vertices.
    Of the three colours of the flag, red signifies courage and decisiveness, white signifies purity and virtue and dark blue signifies peace and integrity.
fact02     The climate of Myanmar is roughly divided into three seasons: summer, rainy season and cold season. From March to mid-May are summer months; the rain falls from mid-May to the end of October and the cold season starts in November and ends in the end of February. Generally, Myanmar enjoys a tropical monsoon climate. However, climatic conditions differ widely from place to place due to widely differing topographical situations. For instance, Central Myanmar has an annual rainfall of less than 40 inches while the Rakhine coast gets about 200 inches.
     Besides, the average highest temperature in Central Myanmar during the summer months March and April is above 110°F (43.3 degree centigrade) while in Northern Myanmar, it is about 79°F (36.1 degree centigrade) and on the Shan Plateau between 85°F and 95°F (29.4 centigrade and 35 degree). Temperature of towns vary according to their location and elevation.
    The location and topography of the country create summer, rainy season, and cold season. Extremes of temperature are not encountered. The direction of winds and depression bring rains, and in some years, severe storms occur causing damage from storm in coastal regions. In order to bring about the favourable climatic conditions, the State has given priority to the Nine Districts Special Region Refoliation Project.
January 19     degrees Centigrade
February 23     degrees Centigrade
March 29     degrees Centigrade
April 32     degrees Centigrade
May 33     degrees Centigrade
June 33     degrees Centigrade
July 32     degrees Centigrade
August 32     degrees Centigrade
September 30     degrees Centigrade
October 28     degrees Centigrade
November 18     degrees Centigrade
December 16     degrees Centigrade
    Myanmar is endowed with a rich diversity of habitat types arising largely from its unusual ecological diversity. It is home to nearly 300 known mammal species, 300 reptiles, and about 100 bird species.
    The country is also a haven for about 7000 species of plant life. The potential worth of plant species in Myanmar is considerable.
    Since Myanmar considers such a rich pool of biodiversity as an important national asset, the government of the Union of Myanmar has drawn up strict regulations to protect its reservoir of biodiversity and biological resources.
    The Union of Myanmar is made up of over hundred national races of which the main ethnic groups are Kachin, Kayah, Kayin, Chin, Bamar, Mon, Rakhine and Shan. According to the statistics of 2000-2001, the population of the country is estimated at million and the population growth rate is 1.84 per cent. Males constitute 23.46 million, forming 49.66 per cent and females constitute 23.79 million, forming 50.34 per cent. It is expected that the population will reach 50 million by the year 2000.
Sr. Census Year Area Square Population (Million) Density of Population per square mile Growth Rate(%)
1 1872 * 88566 2.727 31
2 1881 * 87220 3.737 43
3 1891 171430 7.722 45
4 1901 226209 10.491 46
5 1911 230893 12.115 52
6 1921 233707 13.212 57
7 1931 233492 14.667 63
8 1941 261057 16.824 64
9 1973 261228 28.921 111
10 1983 261228 35.308 135
11 1993 ** 261228 43.116 165
12 1996 ** 261228 45.565 174 1.84
13 1997 ** 261228 46.40 178 1.84
14 2000 ** 261228 49.008 188 1.84
15 2003 ** 261228 51.660 198
     Since the ancient times, there has been full freedom of worship for followers of religions. So, different religions can be practised in Myanmar. The religious edifices and religious orders have been in existence and religious festivals can be held on a grand scale.
     Although the main religion, Buddhism is practised by the 89.3 percent of the population, there is full freedom of worship for other religions. Christianity is practised by 5.6 percent, Islam by 3.8 percent, Hinduism by 0.5 percent and Animism by 0.2 percent respectively.  
     Every national and every person born of parents, both of whom are nationals are citizens by birth.
The following persons born in or outside the State are also citizens :
  • Persons born of parents, both of whom are citizens;
  • Persons born of parents, one of whom is a citizen and the other an associate citizen;
  • Persons born of parents, one of whom is a citizen and the other a naturalized citizen;
  • Offsprings born of parents, one of whom is a citizen, or an associate citizen, or a naturalized citizen and the other born of parents, both of whom are associate citizens;
  • Offsprings born of parents, one of whom is a citizen, or an associate citizen, or a naturalized citizen and the other born of parents, both of whom are naturalized citizens;
  • Offsprings born of parents, one of whom is a citizen, or an associate citizen, or a naturalized citizen and the other born of parents, one of whom is an associate citizen and the other a naturalized citizen;
     Compilation of national registration which puts on record name, male or female, age and date of birth, birth-place, nationality, residence, marital status is of importance.
     Laws have been enacted for the permission of entry and stay for any foreigner in the Union of Myanmar. Any foreigner shall not be allowed to enter the Union of Myanmar without stay visa or passports. Foreigners are not allowed to enter the country at any rate without passports or valid certificates of registration. Visas must be applied for in a prescribed way.
     Foreigners who enter the country with visas are allowed to stay one month. Depending upon the entry visa, the validity period can be extended.
     Laws have been enacted to allow or check the residence, transition and travelling in Myanmar for foreigners. And a punishment of deportation has been provided.
     Foreigners who are travelling without certificates, or those who travel out of the limited area, or those who travel with invalid certificates and those who fail to adhere to the laws can be taken into custody without warrants.
     Census is taken to record population, animals, property and business. Statistics are taken in cooperation with the authorities concerned all over the country or regionwise. Population, statistics are included in the task.
     Taking of census is conducted by the Government entirely or partly in the
country. Census is taken once in ten years. The task is undertaken by the Population
Department to give the accurate statistics on population, male or female, age-groups,
regional residence.
     National Registration cards are issued to those residing in the country in accordance with the 1921 Registration by Law. Today, Citizenship Cards are issued to those legally eligible.
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