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History of Myanmar
Myanamr fertile_land an rich natural resources, is the largest country in the South-east Asia. Peninsula) sharing borders with Bangladesh, India, CM, Laos and Thailand. With a total land area of 6 76,577 sq. kin, it is about the size of Texas and the size of Wed kingdom and France combined. Ile country stretches over 2090 Ion flout not th to south and over 92 5 km to west. It has a 2832 km long coastline on tile Indian Ocean Over 50 percent of the total land area is covered it forests.
Generally, Myanmar leas three seasons. The monsoon (or) rainy season is from May to October, the cool dry season from November to February, and the hot season Win Match to May. During rainfall varies h om 500 cm ill coastal region to 75 cm in the central dry zone. Average temperature ranges from 32'C central and lower areas to 20C in the northern highlands.
Myanmar is a union of 135 ethnic groups With their own languages and dialects. The major races are Bamar, the Chill, the Kachin, the Shan, the Kayah, the Kayin, the Mon and the Rakhine The name Myanmar embraces all the ethnic groups. The population of Myanmar is over 47 million with the Bamar, the majority race, making up about 70 percent 80 percent of the people of Myanmar are Theravada Buddhism. Some are Christians, Muslims, Hinduss and some animists.
40 million year B.P. Pondaungia cottelia (Poundaung Primate) Live in Pondaung area in Lower Chindwin district
40-42 million years B.P. Mogaungensis (Amphipothecus Primate) live in Mogaung village, Pale township in Sagaing Division and in Bahin village, Myaing township in Magwe Division.
750,000- 275,000 years B.P. Lower Palaeolithic men (early Anyathian) live alone; the bank of the Ayeyawaddy river.
275,000-25,000 years B.P. Lower Palaeolithic men (late Anyathian) live along the bank of the Ayeyarwaddy river and central Myanmar
11,000 years B.P. Upper Palaeolithic men live in Badahlin caves which situated in Ywagan township in southern Shan States.
7,000 - 2,000 B.C. Neolithic men live in central Myanmar Kachin State, Shan States, Mon State, Taninthayi Division, and along the bank of the Chindwin and Ayeyarwaddy rivers.
1,000- 800 B. C. Bronze Age Culture
600 - 500 B.C. Iron Age Culture
A. D 100 Vishnu Old City (Beikthano), Pyu City, early city state in Myanmar.
210 - 5 Funan attacks to occupy the Vishnu.
225 Khama army withdraws from Vishnu.
300 Hlalin, Pyu City, is founded.
300 Sriksetra, the last Pyu City, is founded.
400 A Chandra dynasty is in power at Vesali near Mrauk-U in Rakhine State.
457 - 70 Devacandra, king of Vesali.
500 Vishnu is destroyed by tile Pyus of Sriksetra.
520 - 75 Niticandra, king of Vesali.
575 - 8 Viryacandra,. king of Vesali.
578 - 90 Pariticandra, king of Vesali.
590 - 7 Parthvicandra, king of Vesali.
597 - 600 Darticandra,.king of Vesali.
665 - 701 Dharmavijaya, king of Vesali.
701 - 20 Dharmacandra, kith; of Vesali.
720 Anandacandra records on stone.
832 Sriksetrais destroyted by the Nanchao army.
900 Myanmar come into Myanmar from southern China.
1044 - 77 Anawratha becomes king of Bagan.
1056 Anawratha conquers Thaton.
1060 Anawratha sents his troops to Srilanka to protet the king of Srilanka from Chola (Tamil) attacks.
1071 Anawratha sents religious miss to Srilabka.
1077 - 84 Sawlu, king of Bagan.
1084 Moln raid Bagan.
1084 - 1112 Kyansitta, king of Bagan.
1090 Kyansitta build the Ananda Temple
1112 The Myazedi inscription
1112 - 67 Alaungusithu king of Bagan.
1115 Myanmar envoys visit Yunnan.
1114 Allungsithu builds the Thalpyinyu Temple.
1161 Dispute with Srilanka.
1167 - 70 Narathu, king of Bagan.
1170 - 31 Naratheinkha, Ong of Bagan.
1173 - 1210 Narapatisitlm, king of Bagan.
1180 Srilanka raiders sack Pathein.
1190 Sapada rcturns fom Srilanka. Rise of Srilanka religious
1210 - 34 Nladaungmya, king of Bagan.
1218 Nadaungmya builds the Htilominlo Temple.
1231 - 50 Kyaswa, king of Bagan.
1250 - 4 Uzana, king of Bagn.
1251 - 87 Narathihapate, king of Bagan
1277 War with Chinese. Battle of Ngasaunggyan.
1281 Wareyu (Mon king) becomes lord of Mottama.
1287 Chinese (Tartam) enter Bagan. Mons become independent.
1287 - 98 Kyawswar, king of Bagan. (Puppet king aller fall of Bagan.)
1289 _98 The chiefs of Hsenwi, Mohnyin, Myinsaing, Inwa, Mottama receive recognition from China.
1298 - 13 12 Sawhnit, king of Bagn. (Puppet king.)
1301 Chinese fail to take Myinsaing.
1303 Chinese (Tar tars) wiltdraw from Myanmar.
1312 Kingdom of Pinya is founded.
1312 - 24 Thihathu, king of Pinya.
1315 Kingdom of Sagain is founded.
1315 - 23 Sawyun, king of Sagaing.
1323 - 36 Tarabyagyi, king od Sagaing.
A.D 1324 - 43 Uzana, king of Pinya
1336 - 40 Shwetaungtet, king of Sagaing.
1340 - 50 Kyaswar, king of Sagaing.
1113 - 50 Ngagyishin, king of Pinya.
1350 Narathamainnye, king Sagaing.
1350 Tarabyange, king of Sagaing.
1350 - 9 Kyawswage, king of Pinya.
1352 - 64 Minbyauk, king of Sagaing.
1359 - 64 Narathu, king of Pinya.
1364 Uzana, king of Pinya.
1364 Mao Shans raid Pinya and Sagging. Myanmar migrate to Taungoo.
1364 Inwa is founded.
1364 - 8 Thadominpya; hint' of Inwa.
1368 - 1401 Swasawke, king of lnwa.
1369 Mottama palace moves to Bago.
1385 - 1423 Razadarit, king of Bago. War between Inwa and Bago.
1401-22 Minkaung, king of Inwa.
1404 Rakhine becomes independent and power fin under the Mrauk-U dynasty.
1406 Razadarit, raids Inwa.
1427 - 40 Mohnyinthado, king of Inwa.
1433 Foundation of Mrauk-U.
1446 Thonganbwa (Mao Shan king) surrenders to China.
1453 Shinsawbu, queen of Bago.
1459 Rakhine acquires Chittagong.
1460 Shinsawbu embanks the platform of the Shwedngon pagoda.
1472-92 Dhammazedi, king of Bago. Dhammazedi's , mission to Buddhagaya.
1475 Dhammazedis mission to Srilanka. The Klyani inscription
1519 Portuguese establish a trading station at Mottama.
1531 - 51 Tabinshwehti, king of Taungoo.
1539 Tahinshwehti caputres Bago. The place is set up there.
1544 Tabinshwehti annexes central Myanmar up to Myingyan
1547 Tabinshwehti attacks on Thailand.
1550 Mons drive Myanmar out of Bago.
1551 Bayinnaung regains Bago.
1551 - 81 Bayinnaung, king of Bago. (Second Myanmar Empire)
1551-9 Bayinnaung, annexes Upper Myanmar and Shan States.
1562 Bayinnaung conquers Thailand.
1565 Bayinnaung reconquers Thailand.
1569 Third Age of Thailand.
1574 - 6 Bayinnaaung receives a princess and Buddha tooth from Srilanka.
1587 Thailand regains independence.
1594 Thai army invades Bago but is repulscd.
1595 Mons flee to Thailand.
1599 Rakhine and Taungoo armies sack Bago. Thai army invades Myanmar.
1600 De Brito makes Thanlyin his strong hold.
1605 - 28 Anankpetlun, king of Inwa.
1613 Anakpwtlun defeats de Brito and partially restores the empire.
Circa 1627 Dutch and English Cast India Companies open in Myanmar.
1638 Thalun's Revenue Inquest.
A.D 1650 The Manchu arnies enter Myanmaar territory.
1658 Mons flee to Thailand.
1666 Decline of Rakhine, following loss of Chittagaung.
1677 Dutch and English East India Companies close in Myanmar
1683 Dutch closc their branch in Rakhine.
1689 Fench East India Company open at Thanlyin
1709 English opena dockyard at Thanlyin.
1724-50 Manipuris raid Upper Myanmar
1729 French open a dockyard at Thanlyin.
1733-52 Mahadhammayazadipati, king of Inwa.
1738 Manipuri raid on Inwa.
1740 Rebellion in Lower Myanmar.
1747 The rebellion becomes a Mon rebellion
1750 Mon embassy to the French viceroy Dupleix in India. English embassy arrives in Bago.
1752 The Aduns conquer Upper P,Iyarmar. The Mons capture 11-1yaninar king from 1nwa to kago.
1752 - 60 The MOns capture Myanmar king from Inwa to Bago. (Third Myanmar Empire)
1752 Alaungminthaya suppress the Mons' rebellion.
1753 The English raids the Haigyi island.
1755 Alaungminthaya occupies Pyay, Myanaung and Yangon.
1756 Alaungminthaya conquers Thanlyin.
1757 Alaungminthaya captures Bago.
1757 Ensing Lester's mission. English agreement with Alaungminthaya.
1758 Alaungminthaya conquers Manipur
1759 Alaungminthaya destorys the English agreement with Alaungminthaya.
1760 Alaungminthaya invades Thailand. Alaungminthaya destorys the English settlement at Haigyi island. English East India Company at Yangon.
1760 - 3 Naungdawgyi, king of Shwebo.
1763 - 76 Hsinbyushin, king of Shwebo.
1765 Capital moves to Inwa.
1766 Myanmar invades Thailand.
1767 Myanmar conquers Ayuthia.
1766 - 9 Four separate Chinese invasions of Myanmar.
1769 Myanmar and Chinese sign a peace treaty.
1770 Hsinbyushin revolts but is subelueed by tile Myanmar.
1774 Hshibyushin raises tile Shwedagon to its present height, 327 feet.
1776 Myanmar invade Thailand to suppress in surrenctions. Hinbyushin dies, the Myanmar armies withdraw and Thaikand becomes independent.
1776 - 52 Singu, king of Inwa.
1732 - 1819 Bodawphaya, king of Amarapura.
1782 Conquest of Rakhine.
1785 Myanmar invade Thailand and are repulsed.
1790 - 7 Mingun pagoda is built.
1795 Michael Smes's first embassy to the court of Inwa.
1797 Chinbyan revolt. Captain Cox's mission.
1802 Michael Symes's second embassy.
1802 Srilanka monks seek ordination at Amarapura.
1803 Captain Canning mission.
1809 Captain Canning mission.
1811 Captain Canning mission.
1811 Chinbyan invades Rakhine.
1813 The Myanmar reassert their authority over Manipur.
1813 The Judson arrive in Myanmar.
l817 The Myawnar place their. nominee on the throne of Assam.
1519 - 37 Bagyidaw, king of Inwa.
1823 Myanmar seize Sinmaphtu island.
1829 Hmannanyazawindaegyi is written by the seholars.
1826 The Ttraty of Yandabo.
1829 Hmannaanyazawindaegyi is written by the seholars.
1830 Henry Burney, the first British resident at Inwa.
1837-46 Tharrawaddy, king of Amarapura.
1846-53 Bagan, king of Amarrapura.
1852 Second Angol-Myanmar war.
1853-78 Mindon, king of Mandalay.
1870 First Myanmar embassy to England and Europe.
1872 Fifth Great Synod of Buddhism is held at Mandalay.
1875 The British authorities instruct their resident at Mandalay not to remove his shoes when entering the Myanmar king's presence.
1878-85 Thibaw, the last king of MLyanmar, becomes king.
1883 Myanmar embassy to France.
1885 (November) third Anglo-Myanmar war. (December) Sir Charles Bernard arrives in Mandalay.
1886 (January) Myanmar is declared a British colony. (February) Myanmar is proclamed a province of India.
1886-1900 The Myanmar wage a guerrilla war against the British.
1906 Young Men's Buddhist Association (Y.M.B.A) is founded.
1920 General Council of Buddhist Association (G.C.B.A) is founded.
1920 The first Yangon University strike.
1920 Yangon University is opended.
1921 The Dyarchy reforms.
1930-2 The peasants' rebekkion.
1933 Controversy over the British proposal to separate Myanmar from India.
1934 The Thakin-movement gathers momentum.
1936 The second Yangon University strike.
1937 Myanmar becomes separated from India.
1942 Burma Independent Army (B.I.A) and Japanese army enter to Myanmar.
1942-5 Myanmar under Japanese occupation.
1944 Anti Fascist Organization (A.E.O) is founded.
1945 The Allies capture Mandalay.
1946 The British military administration is withdrawn.
1947 The Myanmar delegation talks with the members of the British Cabinet.
1947 (July) Assassination of General Aung San. (October) The Nu-Atlee Agreement.
1948 (4 January) Myanmar regains independence and leaves the British coommon wealth.
1948-58 The period of AFPFL (Anti Fascist People's Freedom League)
1948 (March) THe Communists revolt. (April) Myanmar becomes a membership of United Nations. (June) The White Band PVO (People Volunter Organisation) go underground. (August) The Kayins and Mons revolt.
1950 The Kuomintang forces invade Myanmar.
1952 Myanmar government reports to the United Nations.
1958 AFPFL split into two groups.
1958 (August) Amnesty is announced by U Nu. (September) The situation of Myanmar become worse. (26 September) U Nu urges General Ne Win to assume the prime Ministership. General Ne Win accepts.
1958 (28 October) General Ne Win forms the Caretaker Government.
1960 (February) The Caretaker Government holds the free and fair election. (April) U Nu forms the Pyidaungsu Government.
1962 (2 March) General Ne Win makes a coupdetat and forms the Revolutionary Council.
1964 The Revolutionary Council issues a statement of policy on religion.
1965 Central Public Service at Phaungyi is opened.
1968 Peoples' Workers' Councils are formed.
1972 The old administrative system is abolished.
1972 University of Education is opened.
1974 Elections are held. (March) The first meeting of the First People's Parliament is held.
1978 Elections are held for second time.
1979 - 80 Education conferences are held.
1930 About one mullion illiterates come to know how to read and write.
1980 - 1 More than 640 million kyats is spent for education.
1938 A General Strike.
1983 (September) The Army makes a coupdetat and forms the State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC).
1990 (May) The SLORC holds the free and fair election.
1991 (September) Myanmar Educational Committee is formed.
1992 (September) The ministry of Progress of Border Areas and National Races and Development Affairs is established.
1997 SLORC changes the new name, the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC).
1993 National Convention is held.
1996 Myanmar Women Entrepreneurs Association is founded.
1997 Myanmar becomes a membership of the Asian Association.
1998 (May) The basic educational seminar for (first level) educational progress is held at Phaunggyi Central Public Service University.
1999 (May) The Second Level Seminar on the programme of the raising up of basic eduaction is held.
1999-2000 The Post Graduate Multimedia Diploma (PGDMA) classes are opened in the Institute of Eduction.
2000 (May) The Third Level Seminar on the programme of the raising up of the eductionis held.
2001 410 Multimedia class room are opened in Myanmar .
in English
1. Ba Maw Prehistory of Myanmar Unpublished Paper, 1999.
2. Bender, F Geology of Burma Berlin, Ge burder Born traeger, 1983.
3. Chhibber The Geology of Burma London, Macmillan and Co., 1934.
4. De Terra, H & Movius, H "Researh on Early Man in Burma" Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, XXII,iii, 1943.
5. Desai,W. S. A Pageant of Burmese History Calcutta, Orient Longmans, 1961.
6. Hall, D.G.E. A History of South East Asia London, Macmillan and Co., 1981, 4th ed.
7. Harvey, G. E History of Burma London, Lon-mans Green and Co., 1925.
8. Osborne, Milton Southeast Asia Sydney, Alley & Unwin, 1988.
9. Proceetlin as of the Pondauno Fossil Expedition Team Unpublished Paper, 1998.
10. Proceeding of the Stutly Group of the Cultural Antiquities found in Budalin Township, Sagging Division. Unpublished Paper, 1998.
11. Tarling , Nicholas The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia London, Cambridge University Press, 1992.
12. Tin Hla Thaw "History of Burma A.D. 1400 - 1500" JBRS,XLII, ii, 1959 December.
13. Tinker, Hugh The Union of Burma London, Ox:ord University Press, 1959.
14. Than Tun, Dr "History of Burma A.D. 1 300 - 1400" JBRS, XLII, ii, 1959 December.
15. Than Tun, Dr "Histrory of Buddhism in Burma A.D 1000-1300" JBRS, LXI, ixii, 1978 December.
16. Woodman, Dorothy The Making of Modern Burma London, The Cressett Press, 1962.
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