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    Myanmar abounds in ancient cultural heritage such as ancient cities, cultural heritage, religious edifices and structures. Areas prominent for the proliferation of such cultural heritage are Pyay, Bagan, Bago, Shwebo, Mandalay, Innwa and Sagaing
Pyu Cultural Heritage [1St to 10th Century AD]
     Structures such as city walls, gates, religious, structures or those representing ancient culture and residences were found in the excavations of ancient Beikthano Hanlin Tharekhittra and Mengmau cities. Among the ancient Pyu cities, a high standard of architecture was found in the Bawbawgyi Zedi, the Phayagyi Zedi, Phayamar Zedi the Bebe Cave Pagoda, and the Laymyethna Cave Pagodas, among others, which had remained intact.
Ragan Cultural Heritage [10th to 13th Century AD] culture07
     Altogether 2230 ancient Zedis, caves and other edifices existed, many of them showing signs of decay due to the elements, and earthquakes and many had crumbled These have been restored to their original design, style and grandeur, with public donations and government contributions.
     Not only have the ancient Bagan edifices which had reached the pinnacle of fame in the 13th Century AD been restored, but the floral designs and the frescoes in them have been properly maintained.
Bagan Ancient Cultural Museum
     The ancient stone inscriptions, stone Buddha statues, earthen utensils, bronze, stone and wooden objects found in ancient Bagan, worthy of being collectively displayed and preserved are now housed in the Ancient Bagan Cultural Museum, construction of which started in 1995.
Ancient Cultural Heritage in Bago [Early AD to 16th Century]
     In Bago, there are the ancient Oktha City and the ancient Hanthawaddy City. It is chronicled in history that ancient Oktha City was established as the Mon Capital around 1st Century AD.
    Ancient Hanthawaddy city was built by King Bayintnaung in 16th century AD.
    The ancient historic pagodas in Bago are the famous Shwemawdaw, Shwe- Maha Zedi, Kyaikpun, Shwegugyi, and Hinthagon pagodas, and others.
   The Kanbawzathadi Palace built by King Bayint Naung in ancient Hanthawady City, was razed and had thus remained. However, under the scheme for excavating palace locations in 1991, the Bamayathana Chamber (Royal Bedroom), the audience hall, the left wing and right wing and the Samok-hsaung have been built anew. The Bamayarthana Chamber has been fully completed, and the rest are expected to be completed soon.
Shwebon Yadana Mingala Palace, Shwebo (18th Century AD)
     Shwebo is the city where Alaungmintaya established the Konbaung Dynasty, the last in Myanmar Naing-Ngan The Archaeology Department excavated and found the site of the palace in Shwebo. In accordance with the finds, parts of the palace, the Glass Palace and the Audience Hall of the Shwebon Yadana Mingala Palace, have been rebuilt. The grand Maha Nanda Lake and ancient pagodas are also in Shwebo. culture06
Myanan Sankyaw Shwenandaw Mandalay [19th Century AD]
   King Mindon built the Myanan Sankyaw Shwenandaw Royal Palace and Mandalay Yadanabon City in 1859 and there by set up his region. The palace was razed during World War It. Out of the 114 buildings thus destroyed, rebuilding of 89 was started in 1990 and completed in 1996. Fine Myanmar architecture and woodwork embellish the structures.
Maha Atulawaiyan [Atumashi] Monastery, Mandalay
     The Maha Atulawaiyan Monastery, was one of the structures constructed as part of the main seven sites by King Mindon when he established the Yadanabon City. The great monastery was lost in a fire in 1892. It was a brick monastery of the Yadanabon period. Architects had put together the structure combining wood and brickwork, and it was extraordinary. Reflecting its original style, work on rebuilding it started in 1995 and was completed in 1996.
Maha Wayyanbontha Bagaya Monastery, Amarapura
     The Maha Wayyanbontha Bagaya Monastery in Amarapura razed in Konbaung period and remained in ruins. Work on rebuilding it was started in February 1993 and completed in May 1995. It is a genuine Myanmar architectural masterpiece in wood and remains as heritage for those desirous of studying such exquisite work.
Ancient Beikthano City
     The ancient Beikthano City is situated north of Kokkogwa village twelve miles west of Taungdwingyi in Magwe Division. Excavation of the city site commenced in 1958-59 for archaeological studies. The finds included the city wall, buttresses, city gates, residences, religious buildings and ancient cultural relics of the Pyu civilization. It could be concluded from the studies that Pyu culture flourished in ancient Beikthano from the 1 st to the 4th-5th Century AD.
Ancient Tharekhittra City
culture09 Ancient Tharekhittra City is situated about five miles southeast of Pyay in Bago Division. Excavation of the ancient city and archaeological studies began in 196263. Strangely, the city wall was neither oval nor circular. The site is about five and a half square miles. The finds included the palace base, city wall, entrance and remains of ancient structures. From studies, it was concluded that in the earlier period Brahmana teachings and Mahayana Buddhism thrived, judging from the finds which included god figurines of the Brahamana and Mahayana sects. Finds also pointed to the eventual emergence of Theravada Buddhism as evinced by the inscriptions of the Pitakat on gold and silver foil, and gold, silver, bronze and stone Buddha statues and terra cotta images. Some of the pagodas, which still remain intact are the Pyu period edifices Bawbawgyi Pagoda, Phayagyi Pagoda, Phayamar Pagoda and Laymyethna Cave Pagoda, the Bebegu Pagoda, the Ashezaygu, the Anaukzaygu and the Yahandagu Pagodas. They are evidence of the pre-Bagan period architectural masterpieces. The finds point to the presence of the ten traditional arts and that there was a high standard of civilization.
Finds of Pondaung Primates culture08
     Fossils of primates which indicate the presence of early human civilization were excavated by Myanmar archaeologists in 1978 and by fossil experts in March and April 1997. The finds were presented and explained to State leaders, experts and academicians and studies were conducted, inviting foreign experts. A second team to study Pondaung primates was formed and field studies were conducted from December 1997 to January 1998.
The Pondaung area is the north-westerly section of middle Myanmar where the Sagaing and Magway Divisions converge. A complete set of left and right jaws Ampithhicus primate dating back to 40 million years was found by the team of experts near Ba-in village, Myaing Township in the Pondaung area. In addition, pieces of the left and right arms of the primate were found at a site about three miles northwest of Ba-in village, and a molar of the primate was also found about two miles north-west of the village.
     Archaeological studies of the Pondaung primate fossils by a combined team of local and foreign experts is still in progress.
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